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Table 5 Influences on the transition into vocational training that leads to a full vocational qualification within 38 months following completion of school career independently of search for training—results of Cox regression (hazard ratios eβ)

From: Transitions into vocational education and training by lower and intermediate secondary school leavers. Can male adolescents compensate for their school-based educational disadvantage in comparison with female adolescents?

Influencing factors Maximum lower secondary school leaving certificate Intermediate leaving certificate
Model C1 Model C2
Gender, social background and migration status
Gender (ref.: male)
 Female 0.78** 1.02
School-based and vocational education and training of parents (Ref.: maximum intermediate school leaving certificate, without vocational qualification)
 Maximum lower secondary school leaving certificate, with vocational qualification 1.64*** 1.19
 Intermediate school leaving certificate, with vocational qualification 1.44* 1.19
 University (of Applied Sciences) entry qualification with or without vocational qualification 1.55* 1.17
 University (of Applied Sciences) entry qualification 1.16 1.14
 Missing information 1.50* 1.07
Social status of the father (EGP classification) (Ref.: Higher-grade professionals, managers in large companies (I))
 Lower-grade professionals, managers in small companies (II) 0.89 1.17
 Routine non-manual employees (III a/b) 0.80 0.95
 Self employed (IV a/b/c) 1.08 1.06
 Technicians. skilled workers (V,VI) 0.86 1.18
 Unskilled and semi skilled workers (VII a/b) 0.93 1.22
 Never employed, missing information 0.75 1.02
Migration background (Ref.: without migration background)
 With migration background 0.77** 0.73***
School grades and type of school most recently attended
Average grade on leaving general schooling (Ref.: 3.16.0)
 2.6–3.0 1.06 1.42***
 2.1–2.5 0.84 1.46***
 1.0–2.0 1.46+ 1.56***
 Missing information 0.37** 1.10
Type of school most recently attended (Ref.: general schooling)
 Vocational school 1.09 1.00
Framework conditions of search for education and training
Number of company-based and dual training positions for every 10 potential trainees in the Federal Statea 1.32*** 1.12*
Proportion of starters in school-based education and training aged 15–17 in the resident population as a %a 0.96* 1.00
Interactions with time b
Gender* time
 Female   1.13*
Type of school most recently attended* time
 vocational school   1.21*
Average grade on leaving general schooling* time
 2.6–3.0 0.83*  
 2.1–2.5 0.73**  
 1.0–2.0 0.80+  
 Missing information 0.80  
Overall model χ2(24) = 137.23
p = .000
χ2(22) = 79.61
p = .000
Sample size n = 1034
(censored: 338)
n = 1570
(censored: 259)
  1. Basis Young adults born between 1987 to 1993 whose school career ended no later than the end of 2010 and who achieved maximum intermediate school leaving certificate (unweighted results)
  2. Significance level + p < .1, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001 (two-sided test)
  3. aIn the year school career is completed in each case
  4. bIf there was a significant interaction with time for individual variables, relevant interaction terms were taken into account in the respective model, cf Blossfeld et al. (2007, p. 235 ff.)