Skip to main content

Table 2 Growth curve models in which empowering ILT is predicted by time in Swedish VET

From: Supervisors and teachers’ influence on expectations on empowering leadership among students in vocational education and training

  Empty model Model 1 Model 2
Par. S.E. Par. S.E. Par. S.E.
Fixed effects
 Intercept 5.091** 0.025 5.031** 0.035 5.037** 0.035
 Time    0.063** 0.026 0.065** 0.027
Random effects
 Residuals 0.271 0.024 0.263 0.023 0.198 0.028
 Intercept 0.202 0.030 0.209 0.030 0.284 0.050
 Time      0.130 0.041
 Intercept*time      −0.117 0.042
Model specifics
 Estimation method ML ML/REML REML
 Log likelihood 1891.3 1885.4/1896.5 1886.5
 AIC 1897.3 1893.4/1900.5 1894.5
 Diff log likelihood (diff df)   5.9* (1) 10.0** (2)
  1. n = 643. Wald tests for fixed effects and χ2-tests of diff log likelihood for random effects
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. ** p < 0.01