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Table 4 Growth curve models in which ILT is predicted by time in VET, supervisors’ leadership, and teachers’ leadership

From: Supervisors and teachers’ influence on expectations on empowering leadership among students in vocational education and training

  Empty model Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Par. S.E. Par. S.E Par. S.E. Par. S.E. Par. S.E.
Fixed effects
 Intercept 4.963 ** 0.025 5.076 0.033 5.040** 0.035 5.033** 0.035 5.033** 0.035
 Country    −0.254** 0.050 −0.248** 0.050 −0.227** 0.050 −0.226** 0.051
 Time      0.139** 0.044 0.139** 0.044 0.140** 0.044
Supervisor leadership        0.058** 0.017 0.058** 0.018
Supervisor leadership * time        −0.027 0.030 −0.033 0.031
Teacher leadership          0.002 0.017
Teacher leadership * time          0.019 0.029
Random effects
 Residuals 0.326 0.030 0.329 0.030 0.320 0.029 0.321 0.030 0.319 0.030
 Intercept 0.227 0.035 0.207 0.035 0.212 0.035 0.205 0.035 0.206 0.035
Model specifics
 Log likelihood 2213.1   2187.9   2178.2   2166.5   2167.1  
 AIC 2219.1   2195.9   2188.2   2181.1   2181.1  
 Diff log likelihood (diff df)    25.5**(1)   9.7** (1)   11.7** (2)   0.6 (2)  
  1. n = 744. Estimation method: maximum likelihood (ML). Wald tests for fixed effects and χ2-tests of diff log likelihood
  2. ** p < 0.01