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Table 2 Results of Cox proportional hazards regression models for the transition into the first stable job

From: Vocational qualification as safety-net? Education-to-work transitions of higher education dropouts in Germany

  Model 1a Model 1b
Hazard ratios t Hazard ratios t
Educational attainment
 Only pre-tertiary vocational training Ref. Ref. 6.96*** 18.28
 Higher education dropout + pre-tertiary vocational training 0.66*** −3.78 4.59*** 10.70
 Higher education dropout without pre-tertiary vocational training 0.14*** −18.28 Ref. Ref.
 Higher education degree 0.68*** −8.85 4.74*** 15.39
At least one parent higher education (yes = 1) 0.90** −3.07 0.90** −3.07
Age at de-registration 1.01 1.17 1.01 1.17
Sex (male = 1) 1.13*** 3.85 1.13*** 3.85
Upper secondary final GPA 0.98 −0.54 0.98 −0.54
Work experience 0.44*** −19.67 0.44*** −19.67
Education-leaving cohort
 1964–1984 1.12* 2.28 1.12* 2.28
 1985–1994 1.28*** 5.23 1.28*** 5.23
 1995–2004 1.24*** 4.39 1.24*** 4.39
 2005–2014 Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
N 5387   5387  
  1. * p < 0.05
  2. ** p < 0.01
  3. *** p < 0.001