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Table 4 Factors supporting guidance

From: Guiding workplace learning in vocational education and training: a literature review

Factors Supporting factors Number of articles References
Learner factors Initiativeness, responsibility 6 Gurtner et al. (2011), Reegård (2015), Savoie-Zajc and Dolbec (2003), Smith (2000), Tanggaard (2005), Wegener (2014)
Self-regulation 3 Reegård (2015), Virtanen and Tynjälä (2008), Virtanen et al. (2014)
Strong social skills 2 Evanciew and Rojewski (1999), Savoie-Zajc and Dolbec (2003)
Prior experience, deliberate career choice 1 Chan (2014)
Direct guidance Supportive relationship with a trainer 4 Chan (2014), Evanciew and Rojewski (1999), Tanggaard (2005), Virtanen et al. (2014)
Time and resources provided for guidance 2 Nielsen (2008), Smith (2000)
Various guidance methods 2 Evanciew and Rojewski (1999), Koskela and Palukka (2011)
Trainer’s ability to share knowledge, stimulate questions 2 Fuller and Unwin (2004), Gurtner et al. (2011)
Trainer’s ability to produce critical reflection 1 Onnismaa (2008)
Pedagogical qualification, formal training 2 Filliettaz (2011), Smith (2000)
Trainer’s self-reflection 1 Koskela and Palukka (2011)
Learner’s tendency to select trainer(s) 1 Tanggaard (2005)
Indirect guidance/learning context Learner’s participation, legitimate, active role, agency 9 Chan (2014), Collin and Valleala (2005), Evanciew and Rojewski (1999), Filliettaz (2011), Gurtner et al. (2011), Koskela and Palukka (2011), Nielsen (2008), Savoie-Zajc and Dolbec (2003), Virtanen et al. (2014)
Learner’s independent work, increasing responsibility 6 Evanciew and Rojewski (1999), Filliettaz (2011), Gurtner et al. (2011), Nielsen (2008), Reegård (2015), Smith (2000)
Supportive relationships with various workers 6 Chan (2014), Corney and du Plessis (2010), Filliettaz (2011), Savoie-Zajc and Dolbec (2003), Smith (2000), Virtanen et al. (2014)
Sense of equality and community 3 Collin and Valleala (2005), Fuller and Unwin (2004), Reegård (2015)
Reciprocal relationships 3 Fuller and Unwin (2004), Nielsen (2008), Onnismaa (2008)
Support from significant others 2 Chan (2014), Corney and du Plessis (2010)
Learner’s opinions and participation taken into account 3 Onnismaa (2008), Reegård (2015), Virtanen et al. (2014)
Task or team rotation 3 Fuller and Unwin (2004), Savoie-Zajc and Dolbec (2003), Virtanen et al. (2014)
Peer relationships and support 3 Chan (2014), Gurtner et al. (2011), Tanggaard (2005)
Connectivity Connectivity, integration of theory and practice 5 Onnismaa (2008), Savoie-Zajc and Dolbec (2003), Winters et al. (2009), Virtanen and Tynjälä (2008), Virtanen et al. (2014)
Personalization, individual learning and guidance needs 4 Fuller and Unwin (2004), Onnismaa (2008), Smith (2000), Virtanen et al. (2014)
Explicit framework, clear rules and roles 3 Fuller and Unwin (2004), Onnismaa (2008), Smith (2000)
Identified goals 2 Evanciew and Rojewski (1999), Smith (2000)