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Table 4 Mixed-effects models

From: A mixed-methods study of physiological reactivity to domain-specific problem solving: methodological perspectives for process-accompanying research in VET

Parameter Model 1: HR Model 2: RMSSD Model 3: LF/HF ratio Model 4: SCL Model 5: SCR
β S.E. (β) p β S.E. (β) p β S.E. (β) p β S.E. (β) p β S.E. (β) p
Fixed effects
 Intercept −.137 .147 .366 .143 .235 .552 .026 .136 .849 −.384 .206 .082 −.100 .101 .333
Level 2
 Vocational experience −.038 .177 .836 −.210 .285 .476 −.053 .136 .704 −.422 .229 .087    
 General intelligence (IQ) .126 .153 .425 −.009 .246 .971 −.088 .117 .465       
 Self-efficacy beliefs .107 .156 .504 −.259 .250 .323 .149 .119 .234     −.070 .091 .453
 BMI −.179 .169 .311 .229 .273 .418 −.258 .128 .068 −.001 .240 .996 −.164 .098 .116
 Perceived stress, baseline .278 .153 .094 .072 .246 .776 −.037 .120 .763 .149 .219 .509 −.231 .097 .032
Level 1
 Time from starting .002 .001 <.001 −.001 .001 .192 −.0005 .001 .623 .004 .0004 <.001 .001 .0005 .061
 Goal elaboration and definition .108 .016 <.001 .013 .010 .168        −.023 .020 .253
 Information seeking     .018 .011 .115 .009 .019 .643       
 Information recording .004 .015 .814     −.002 .016 .914       
 Decision making           .005 .005 .288 .057 .020 .004
 Performing operations     .0003 .013 .984 .001 .020 .956     −.039 .026 .132
 Action control and reflection −.010 .011 .343             
 Vocational experience × goal elaboration and definition −.168 .018 <.001             
Random effects
 Random intercept variance .337 .143 .018 .876 .379 .021 .151 .083 .069 .732 .280 .009 .138 .056 .013
Repeated measures
 AR1 diagonal .531 .022 <.001 .466 .032 <.001 .814 .052 <.001 .128 .008 <.001 .750 .026 <.001
 AR1 ρ .619 .016 <.001 .844 .011 <.001 .830 .011 <.001 .842 .010 <.001 .029 .031 .348
−2LL (null model/mixed-effects model) 7176.091/5245.875 6176.296/2580.303 7976.347/4446.509 3591.634/−1300.303 4736.776/4531.312
AIC (null model/mixed-effects model) 7180.091/5251.875 6180.296/2586.303 7980.347/4452.509 3595.634/−1294.303 4740.776/4537.312
BIC (null model/mixed-effects model) 7192.153/5269.868 6192.358/2604.296 7992.409/4470.502 3607.792/−1276.157 4751.758/4553.690
n (10-s intervals) 2985 2984 2984 3135 1744