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Table 11 Teachers of vocational subjects (Group C) perceiving barriers to their professional development: differences with Group A of teachers, in percentage points (pps) and standard error of the difference (s.e.), Italy, 2013

From: The professional development of VET teachers in Italy: participation, needs and barriers. Statistical quantifications and benchmarking in an international perspective

Barrier Teachers of vocational subjects in schools with VET programmes
(Group C)
Teachers of general subjects in schools with no VET programme
(Group A)
Difference
(C) − (A)
% s.e. % s.e. pps s.e.
B1-do not have the pre-requisites 18.4 2.1 14.2 1.6 4.2 2.6
B2-too expensive—unaffordable 57.7 2.4 53.4 1.8 4.3 3.0
B3-lack of employer support 54.9 2.2 45.9 1.8 9.0 (*) 2.9
B4-conflicts with work schedule 58.0 1.9 64.7 1.5 − 6.6 (*) 2.4
B5-family responsibilities 32.3 1.9 42.5 1.7 − 10.2 (*) 2.5
B6-there is no relevant offer 70.3 2.2 71.0 1.7 − 0.7 2.8
B7-there are no incentives for participating 85.2 1.5 86.9 1.0 − 1.7 1.9
  1. NB: Data refer to upper secondary teachers. Positive values of the difference indicate that in Italy the element is considered as a barrier to professional development proportionally more by VET teachers’ than by teachers of general subjects. The (*) indicates that the difference is statistically significant at 95% level of significance