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Table 6 Teachers of vocational subjects (Group C) declaring a high level of need for professional development by domain: differences between Italy and other countries, in percentage points (pps) and standard error of the differences (s.e.)

From: The professional development of VET teachers in Italy: participation, needs and barriers. Statistical quantifications and benchmarking in an international perspective

Domain for professional development Australia Denmark Finland Mexico Norway Poland
pps s.e. pps s.e. pps s.e. pps s.e. pps s.e. pps s.e.
D1-knowledge and understanding of my subject(s) 17.1 (*) 1.9 13.2 (*) 2.2 15.8 (*) 2.6 15.3 (*) 2.1 9.7 (*) 2.1 15.7 (*) 2.1
D2-pedagogical competencies in teaching my subject(s) 17.6 (*) 2.1 9.1 (*) 4.2 15.5 (*) 2.7 8.6 (*) 2.6 12.3 (*) 2.3 17.8 (*) 2.1
D13-knowledge of the curriculum 7.4 (*) 1.7 3.7 (*) 2.0 6 (*) 2.0 2.0 1.9 3.0 1.9 5.9 (*) 1.7
D3-student evaluation and assessment practice 15.3 (*) 1.8 9.7 (*) 2.1 14.4 (*) 2.0 9 (*) 1.9 4.2 2.2 15.3 (*) 2.2
D4-ICT skills for teaching 16.7 (*) 3.0 16.5 (*) 3.7 18.8 (*) 2.4 18.4 (*) 2.7 12.9 (*) 2.9 20.4 (*) 2.8
D5-student behaviour and classroom management 19.9 (*) 2.3 14.8 (*) 2.4 14.2 (*) 2.3 13.1 (*) 2.5 18 (*) 2.2 14.9 (*) 2.5
D14-school management and administration 5.7 (*) 1.7 6.5 (*) 2.0 4.1 2.1 − 0.9 2.0 6.3 (*) 1.7 3.0 1.6
D6-approaches to individualised learning 9.3 (*) 2.2 6.1 (*) 2.2 6.6 (*) 1.9 1.2 2.2 8.0 (*) 2.1 7.7 (*) 2.2
D7-teaching to students with special needs 18.2 (*) 2.7 5.9 5.0 14.3 (*) 2.4 − 10.9 (*) 3.2 10.8 (*) 2.8 15.1 (*) 2.8
D8-teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting 19.3 (*) 2.2 16.7 (*) 3.0 16.9 (*) 2.3 − 4.7 3.2 14.1 (*) 2.4 16.2 (*) 2.1
D9-teaching cross curricular skills 18.6 (*) 1.9 13.6 (*) 2.5 17.4 (*) 2.2 11.7 (*) 2.2 10.3 (*) 2.3 15.5 (*) 2.1
D10-approaches to developing cross occupational competencies for future work/studies 16.8 (*) 2.1 17 (*) 2.1 16.7 (*) 2.2 8.3 (*) 2.4 7.7 (*) 2.4 14.5 (*) 2.3
D11-new technologies in the workplace 26.0(*) 2.9 23.7 (*) 2.7 28.6 (*) 2.6 19.4 (*) 2.8 19.4 (*) 2.9 21.5 (*) 2.8
D12-student career guidance and counselling 14.4 (*) 1.9 14.5 (*) 2.4 17.3 (*) 1.7 5.2 (*) 2.3 11 (*) 2.0 8.4 (*) 2.6
  1. NB: Data refer to upper secondary teachers. Positive values of the difference indicate that, in a given domain, teachers of vocational subjects (Group C) declare higher needs for professional development in Italy than in the benchmark country. The (*) indicates that the difference is statistically significant at 95% level of significance