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Table 9 Teachers of vocational subjects (Group C) perceiving barriers to their professional development: differences between Italy and other countries, in percentage points (pps) and standard error of the differences (s.e.), 2013

From: The professional development of VET teachers in Italy: participation, needs and barriers. Statistical quantifications and benchmarking in an international perspective

Barrier Australia Denmark Finland Mexico Norway Poland
pps s.e. pps s.e. pps s.e. pps s.e. pps s.e. pps s.e.
B1-do not have the pre-requisites 9.5 (*) 2.9 9.8 (*) 3.3 12.5 (*) 3.0 − 8.4 (*) 3.4 13.3 (*) 2.3 9.0 (*) 2.6
B2-too expensive—unaffordable 9.8 (*) 4.2 28.0 (*) 4.7 39.7 (*) 2.7 10.4 (*) 3.2 25.0 (*) 3.3 1.4 3.5
B3-lack of employer support 27.3 (*) 3.5 20.0 (*) 4.2 28.5 (*) 3.7 − 2.3 3.4 26.2 (*) 3.6 26.0 (*) 3.0
B4-conflicts with work schedule − 3.9 3.2 1.1 3.5 11.5 (*) 5.2 11.4 (*) 3.0 9.2 (*) 3.4 21.9 (*) 3.4
B5-family responsibilities 2.3 3.1 23.1 (*) 2.3 10.2 (*) 3.3 13.6 (*) 2.7 4.4 2.9 − 9.0 3.5
B6-there is no relevant offer 46.9 (*) 3.4 27.6 (*) 5.6 39.7 (*) 3.7 16.7 (*) 3.7 52.6 (*) 2.7 17.7 (*) 3.3
B7-there are no incentives for participating 40.3 (*) 3.0 38.7 (*) 8.1 43.9 (*) 3.1 18.3 (*) 3.4 55.6 (*) 3.1 36.5 (*) 2.8
  1. NB: Data refer to upper secondary teachers. Positive values of the difference indicate that proportionally more teachers of vocational subjects in Italy than in the benchmark country considered a given element as a barrier to their professional developments The (*) indicates that the difference is statistically significant at 95% level of significance