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Table 2 Cross-classification of learning opportunities and covariates

From: How prior economic education influences beginning university students’ knowledge of economics

  Gender Migration background Final grade
Female Male No migration background Migration background
No vocational training 213
80.1%a
192
78.7%a
270
76.5%b
134
86.5%b
400
2.36
Vocational training 53
19.9%a
52
21.3%a
81
23.5%b
21
13.5%b
103
2.54
Total 266
100%a
244
100%a
353
100%b
155
100%b
503
2.40
No course in economics as a major 185
69.5%a
143
59.1%a
266
64%b
100
65.4%b
323
2.39
Course in economics as a major 81
30.5%a
99
40.9%a
127
36%b
53
34.6%b
178
2.41
Total 266
100%a
242
100%a
353
100%b
153
100%b
501
2.40
Standard upper secondary school 195
73.3%a
163
66.9%a
261
73.9%b
95
61.3%b
353
2.37
Attendance of an upper secondary school specializing in economics 71
26.7%a
81
33.2%a
92
26.1%b
60
38.7%b
150
2.47
Total 266
100%a
244
100%a
353
100%b
155
100%b
503
2.4
  1. a% in the gender variable
  2. b% in the migration background variable