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Table 3 T-tests for the different learning opportunities

From: How prior economic education influences beginning university students’ knowledge of economics

  TEL4-G score TUCE4-G macroeconomics score TUCE4-G microeconomics score
Without vocational training 6.44 11.80 9.28
With vocational training 7.18 13.14 9.93
  p = .000
d = .41
p = .035
d = .352
p = .119
d = .231
Without course in economics as major 6.40 11.33 9.32
With course in economics as major 6.96 13.13 9.65
  p = .001
d = .308
p = .000
d = .48
p = .387
d = .117
Standard upper secondary school 6.6 11.93 9.45
Secondary school specializing in economics 6.59 12.31 9.35
  p = .463
d = − .05
p = .419
d = .099
p = .345
d = .035