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Table 1 Description of employed variables

From: The importance of owner-managed SMEs and regional apprenticeship activity: evidence from the German Mittelstand

Variable Description Source
Apprenticeship Share of apprentices in all employees subject to social insurance contributions at place of work by counties in percent, West Germany, 2008a INKAR database (2010) of the Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development
Share of Mittelstand firms Number of owner-managed SMEs relative to all enterprises by NUTS-3-regions in percent, West Germany, December 31, 2008. Due to data availability, firms are localized by headquarters Creditreform database (2008)b
Unemployment rate Share of the unemployed in the workforce by counties in percent, West Germany, 2008 INKAR database (2010)
Unemployed potential trainees Share of young people (aged under 25 years) in the unemployed by counties in percent, West Germany, 2008 INKAR database (2010)
Medium-skilled (high-skilled) potential trainees Number of graduates and leavers of secondary schoolsc in the school year 2007/08 holding a General Certificate of Secondary Education (Realschulabschluss) (holding a Higher Education Entrance Qualification (Hochschul-, Fachhochschulreife)) per enterprise by NUTS-3-regions, West Germany, 2008 Statistical Office of Lower Saxony (2010), Creditreform database (2008)b
Size of universities Number of academic and artistic personnel at universities and universities of applied sciences per graduate or leaver of secondary schoolc in the school year 2007/2008 by counties, West Germany, 2008. In order to deal adequately with academic personnel working part-time, we report full-time equivalent values German Federal Statistical Officeb
Distance to universities Distance to the nearest university/university of applied sciences in meter Own calculation
Sectors Share of enterprises of the referring industrial sectord in all enterprises by NUTS-3-regions in percent, West Germany, 2008. Whenever a firm is active in various sectors, we report the industrial sector in which a company generates its largest turnover. The share of enterprises without sector information is reported as ’No sector information’ Creditreform database (2008)b
Occupations Share of employees of the referring occupational categorye in all employees subject to social insurance contributions at place of work by counties in percent, West Germany, June 30, 2008. Employees without information about their occupations, non-agricultural family workers, labourers with occupation still to be specified and labourers not further specified are summarized in the group ’No occupational information’ Federal Employment Agencyb
Small (large) firms Share of companies with minimum ten and maximum 49 (with minimum 50) employees subject to social insurance contributions in all enterprises by NUTS-3-regions in percent, West Germany, 2008. A further differentiation according to the number of employees is not feasible due to secrecy in some regions Federal Statistical Office and the Statistical Offices of the Länder (2016)
Population density Population per square kilometer by NUTS-3-regions, West Germany, 2008 Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development
Working-age population Share of population aged 15 to 65 in all inhabitants by counties, West Germany, 2008 Statistical Office of Lower Saxony (2010)
GDP per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita at current prices (€, thousands) by NUTS-3-regions, West Germany, 2008 Statistical Offices of the Länder (2010)
CDU/CSU/ FDP (other parties) Share of valid second votes CDU/CSU and FDP (other parties)f received in the parliamentary elections in 2009 Federal Returning Officer (Bundeswahlleiter)
  1. a The value for Flensburg was missing (0.0) in the original data. In consultation with the data provider, we added the missing value (7.2)
  2. b Special analysis on request
  3. c In Bavaria including commercial colleges
  4. d Industrial sectors according to NACE Rev. 2, one-digit-level (see Additional file 1: Table S2)
  5. e Occupational categories according to the German occupational classification from 1988 (see Additional file 1: Table S3). Shares of occupational categories and ’No occupational information’ do not add to 100% due to anonymization
  6. f Other parties are defined as all parties taking part in the parliamentary elections in 2009 except CDU/CSU, FDP, SPD, and Die Grünen