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Table 3 Manski model

From: The importance of owner-managed SMEs and regional apprenticeship activity: evidence from the German Mittelstand

  Direct effects Indirect effects Total effects
Share of Mittelstand firms 0.0218* − 0.0849* − 0.0631
Unemployment rate 0.0273 0.0280 0.0553
Unemployed potential trainees 0.0580*** 0.2556*** 0.3136***
Medium-skilled potential trainees 0.6358 − 8.1262 − 7.4904
High-skilled potential trainees − 0.6437 1.0097 0.3660
Size of universities − 0.0666 − 0.5825 − 0.6491
Distance to universities 0.0066*** 0.0028 0.0094
Small firms 0.0916* − 0.0758 0.0158
Large firms 0.0040 0.7407 0.7447
Working-age population 0.0103 0.1370 0.1474
Population density 0.0000 0.0002 0.0002
GDP per capita − 0.0162** 0.0132 − 0.0030
CDU/CSU/FDP 0.0306*** − 0.0389 − 0.0083
Other parties 0.0309 − 0.0799 − 0.0489
N 326   
Nagelkerke 0.8386   
\(\rho\) 0.5222 (0.0000)   
\(\lambda\) − 0.7407 (0.0000)   
  1. Industrial sectors and occupations are further controls not reported in this table. Additional file 1: Table S6 reports the results of the Manski model including sectors and occupations
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1.