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Fig. 4 | Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training

Fig. 4

From: Psychological determinants of test motivation in low-stakes test situations: A longitudinal study of singletrait–multistate models in accounting

Fig. 4

Bifactor model using the residual approach to predict the state factors. VALUE = Subjective test value dimension of the test motivation construct. EFFOR = Effort dimension of the test motivation construct. 11, 12, 13 = grade 11, grade 12, grade 13. The association β_s13 (states at grade 13) is depicted as dashed line indicating that this association is not investigated in the present study. β_s11 (states at grade 11) and β_s12 (states at grade 12) indicate the associations of interest. The correlated uniqueness approach (item/method-specific correlations over time) is indicated by vertical curved (unlabelled) arrows

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