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Table 2 Access to and participation in further training (Gompertz model) and the role of employers’ supply for employees’ participation in further training (exponential model)

From: Economic change and continuous vocational training in the work history: a longitudinal multilevel analysis of the employees’ participation in further training and the effects on their occupational careers in Germany, 1970–2008

  Access: further training Supply: training leave Supply: financial support
Models 1 2 3
Gender (Ref.: female)
Male − 0.105 0.092 0.147
(0.032)*** (0.036)** (0.038)***
Qualification    
General education and vocational training 0.022 0.034 0.023
(0.004)*** (0.005)*** (0.005)***
High vs. low qualification requirements 0.134 0.389 0.312
(0.061)* (0.065)*** (0.072)***
Position in firm (Ref.: upper service class)
Labour class − 0.367 − 0.840 − 1.003
(0.073)*** (0.078)*** (0.088)***
Lower middle class − 0.382 − 1.017 − 1.167
(0.068)*** (0.070)*** (0.076)***
Middle class − 0.087 − 0.301 − 0.288
(0.040)* (0.046)*** (0.050)***
Employment
Number of previous job changes 0.096 0.188 0.197
(0.010)*** (0.010)*** (0.011)***
Permanent vs. fixed-term labour contract − 0.178 0.128 0.164
(0.045)*** (0.049)** (0.055)**
Labour market
Firm size − 0.015 0.084 0.081
(0.006)* (0.007)*** (0.007)***
Public sector vs. private sector − 0.186 0.246 − 0.117
(0.035)*** (0.042)*** (0.046)*
Supply of further training by company
Training leave 1.376   
(0.058)***   
Financial support 0.449   
(0.045)***   
Time dimensions
Life cycle: labour force experience 0.002 − 0.006 − 0.007
(0.000)*** (0.000)*** (0.000)***
Cohort: economic modernisation 0.686 0.018 0.056
(0.048)*** (0.046) (0.050)
Cohort: labour market situation − 0.163 − 0.044 0.014
(0.027)*** (0.030) (0.031)
Period: economic modernisation 1.686 − 0.292 − 0.294
(0.364)*** (0.271) (0.314)
Period: labour market situation − 0.341 0.251 0.298
(0.136)* (0.095)** (0.110)**
Intercept − 7.016 − 5.113 − 5.151
(0.118)*** (0.120)*** (0.130)***
Gamma: labour force experience − 0.00001   
(0.00000)**   
Intercept 0.002   
(0.001)*   
LR χ2 (df) 2896.9 (17) 2307.3 (15) 1789.9 (15)
Number of sub episodes 71,374 45,108 52,236
Number of events 4661 6380 5296
Number of individuals 15,511 15,511 15,511
  1. p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01; *** p ≤ 0.001; in parenthesis: robust standard error
  2. Source: ALWA—own calculations