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Table 3 Effects of further training on the stability of employees’ career (exponential model)

From: Economic change and continuous vocational training in the work history: a longitudinal multilevel analysis of the employees’ participation in further training and the effects on their occupational careers in Germany, 1970–2008

  Dismissal by employer Dismissal by employee Consensual suspension of labour contract
Models 1 2 3
Gender (Ref.: female)
Male 0.238 0.039 0.009
(0.063)*** (0.038) (0.056)
Qualification
General education and VET − 0.024 0.061 0.049
(0.008)** (0.005)*** (0.007)***
Job characteristic    
Qualification requirement − 0.232 − 0.084 − 0.479
(0.081)** (0.055) (0.078)***
Position in firm (upper service class)
Labour class − 0.190 0.171 0.139
(0.128) (0.078)* (0.111)
Lower middle class − 0.114 − 0.161 0.067
(0.120) (0.075)* (0.109)
Middle class − 0.153 0.194 − 0.078
(0.104) (0.058)*** (0.081)
Employment
Permanent labour contract − 0.025 0.267 − 2.058
(0.093) (0.055)*** (0.055)***
Labour market
Firm size − 0.207 − 0.103 − 0.052
(0.012)*** (0.007)*** (0.011)***
Public sector vs. private sector − 1.773 − 0.607 0.095
(0.144)*** (0.051)*** (0.064)
Effects of further training
Participation − 1.123 − 0.840 − 1.283
(0.134)*** (0.067)*** (0.120)***
Training leave − 0.560 − 0.481 − 0.493
(0.088)*** (0.054)*** (0.080)***
Financial support − 0.463 − 0.209 − 0.159
(0.093)*** (0.055)*** (0.084)
Time dimensions
Life cycle: labour force experience − 0.006 − 0.012 − 0.011
(0.000)*** (0.000)*** (0.000)***
Cohort: economic modernisation − 0.001 − 0.549 − 0.334
(0.081) (0.048)*** (0.070)***
Cohort: labour market situation − 0.035 0.166 0.014
(0.046) (0.028)*** (0.045)
Period: economic modernisation 0.663 0.148 − 2.079
(0.674) (0.310) (0.576)***
Period: labour market situation − 0.366 0.245 0.510
(0.239) (0.108)* (0.196)**
Intercept − 3.750 − 3.431 − 2.741
(0.198)*** (0.118)*** (0.164)***
LR χ2 (df) 1499.4 (17) 5851.0 (17) 4210.3 (17)
Number of sub episodes 84,657 72,979 83,857
Number of events 1681 5810 2275
Number of individuals 15,511 15,511 15,511
  1. p ≤ 0.1; * p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01; *** p ≤ 0.001; in parenthesis: robust standard error
  2. Source: ALWA—own calculations