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Table 2 Key components, considerations, and items (with Delphi scores)

From: Considerations for career intervention services in global youth workforce development: consensus across policy, research, and practice

Key component, consideration and item Mdn IQR
Holistic, systemic and comprehensive framework
 Include programs that are both developmental and progressive
  Should be age specific, from primary schools through transition aged youth/young adults 6.5 1.0
  Should be lifelong and progressive 7.0 1.0
 Address the unique characteristics and needs of the participant groups
  Should be customizable 7.0 1.0
  Should be culturally appropriate to the participants & community 7.0 1.0
 Utilize theories and frameworks to inform career and WFD programs for youth
  There is not just one theoretical foundation that should inform all career and WFD programs for youth 6.0 1.0
  Both conventional as well as new, innovative theories should be used to account for the changing socio-economic sphere 6.0 1.0
 Focus on programs, trainings, and information that have practical application
  Should provide training and programs that are evidenced based 7.0 1.0
  Should provide information and/or access to financial services 6.0 1.0
 Be rooted within the community
  Should include multiple institutions and organizations to achieve the goal of a holistic, systemic, and comprehensive program 6.0 1.0
  Should build awareness throughout the community and incorporate initiatives within the program to build interest in the community 6.0 1.0
Needs assessment
 Aspects of implementation
  Should consider process and logistics 6.0 1.0
  Should consider accessibility issues 6.0 0.5
 Include a wide range of factors impacting youth
  Should consider talents, knowledge, skills, values, interests and intellects 6.5 1.0
  Should consider challenges that have traditionally impacted youth 6.5 1.0
 Current state of the community
  Should consider current/pre-existing community factors 6.0 1.0
  Should consider labor demand 7.0 1.0
  Should consider level of awareness regarding program initiatives 6.0 1.0
 Individual stakeholder groups
  Parents 7.0 1.0
  Counselors 7.0 1.0
  Researchers/scholars 6.5 1.0
 Programmatic stakeholder groups
  Educational programs 7.0 1.0
  Employment programs 6.5 1.0
  Social programs, including other youth and advocacy organizations 6.5 1.0
 Professional stakeholder groups
  Local and regional agencies 6.0 1.0
  Private sector industry 7.0 1.0
  Trade unions 6.0 1.0
  Professional associations 7.0 1.0
 Collaboration between all stakeholders
  There should be a system for communication with stakeholders; including why and how they are involved 7.0 1.0
  Should consider diverse and specific goals agreed upon by multiple stakeholder groups 6.0 1.0
Trainer curriculum
 Utilize the most appropriate personnel
  Teachers with specialized and focused training can provide career and WFD programs for youth 6.0 1.0
  Teachers and specially trained career and WFD consultants should work together 7.0 0.0
 Include theories and techniques of helping and career development
  It is an important component of trainer curriculums 6.0 1.0
  Should be taught in applied/practical approach 6.5 1.0
  Should be adaptable/adapted to trainer and end-user/consumer groups 7.0 1.0
  Should include career choice and decision making 7.0 1.0
  An orientation to helping professions and roles will help build rapport and trust between the trainer and participants 6.0 1.0
  An orientation to helping professions and roles is an important component of trainer curriculums 6.5 1.0
 Developed from multiple sources
  Should be influenced by demographics of the participant/end-user population 6.0 1.0
  Should be influenced by current areas of strength and need 6.0 0.5
  Should be influenced by curriculum content experts 6.0 1.0
  Should be influenced by previous curriculum evaluation 6.0 1.0
  Should be influenced by collaboration between internal and external stakeholder groups 6.0 1.0
  Should be influenced by trainers’ ability to recognize their own preconceived notions, biases, and beliefs 7.0 1.0
  Should be influenced by Aspects of Positive Youth Development (i.e. an approach to global youth development which “engages youth along with their families, communities, and/or governments so that youth are empowered to reach their full potential) 6.5 1.0
 Include psychosocial interventions (e.g., crisis and trauma, substance abuse, disability, etc.)
  It is an important component of trainer curriculums 6.0 1.0
  Local agencies should provide this support/collaboration 6.0 0.5
  Should be offered at an advanced level for certain trainer groups 6.0 1.0
 Include operational and business components of an effective global youth WFD program
  Should involve a hands-on program development component 6.0 1.0
  Should include innovative and low-cost procedures 6.0 1.0
  Should include expanding career opportunities for end-user/participants 7.0 1.0
  Should include social entrepreneurial skills 7.0 1.0
  Should include coaching 6.0 1.0
  Should include marketing strategies 6.0 1.0
Participant curriculum
 Developed with multiple sources
  Should consider labor market demand 6.0 1.0
  Should consider valid assessment tools 7.0 1.0
  Should consider hands-on, participatory, and real-world delivery 7.0 1.0
  Should consider both trainers and participants/end-user groups 7.0 1.0
  Should consider input from parents and other community stakeholders 6.0 1.0
 Include curriculum for parents/family members
  Should consider the influence parents and family have on participants 6.0 1.0
  Should consider providing information regarding career specific issues 6.0 1.0
  Should consider providing information about current social, economic, and labor market trends 6.0 1.0
  Should consider providing information about what their child is being exposed to and the implications of the education/work decisions made by the participant 6.5 1.0
  Should consider allowing room for discussion when needed 6.5 1.0
  Should consider providing the skills and information to assist their child in making an objective career related decision 7.0 1.0
  Should consider their participation when participants are under the age of consent 6.0 1.0
 Include curriculum for other community members/stakeholders
  Should consider the role that community has on influences certain jobs/careers; stereotypes, attitudes, and perceptions 6.0 1.0
  Should consider addressing and developing social/community responsibility 6.0 1.0
  Should consider creating support networks for career and workforce initiatives and participants 6.0 1.0
 Recruit target participants through various avenues
  Youth themselves (e.g., self and other nominations) 6.5 1.0
  Parents and other stakeholder groups 6.0 1.0
  Schools 7.0 1.0
  Public health programs 6.0 1.0
  Personal/community networks 6.0 1.0
  Professional networks 7.0 1.0
  Local administrations 6.0 1.0
  Local youth groups 6.0 0.0
  Local youth NGO’s 6.0 1.0
  Special education programs 6.0 0.0
  Social service agencies 6.0 0.0
  Physical/mental health service agencies 6.0 0.0
 Incorporate effective career education and guidance components   
  Career education and guidance is an essential component 6.5 1.0
  Career education and guidance should be the underlying theme throughout the program 6.0 1.0
  Creates better understanding of self and the world of work 7.0 0.5
  Assists participant in finding a good match between self and career/job 6.5 1.0
  Leads to increased information related to skills needed to achieve a career-related goal 7.0 1.0
  Leads to a better understanding of participant career-related values 7.0 1.0
  Is the starting point for career exploration 6.5 1.0
  Creates awareness regarding self and world of work, within the participant 6.5 1.0
  Promotes work-based learning and career readiness skills 7.0 1.0
  Promotes career management (i.e. career skills for youth to use throughout their lives; including self-determination and self-direction) 7.0 0.5
  Assists in developing current and future skills 7.0 1.0
  Provides clear direction, goal, plan and supports 6.0 1.0
 Incorporate effective technical and vocational training components
  Can be acquired by all youth, regardless of literacy and/or academic levels/abilities 6.0 0.5
  Creates opportunities for both wage-employment and self-employment 6.0 1.0
  Creates a full picture of career options, not just those requiring higher education 6.0 1.0
  Can include academic training 6.5 1.0
  Meets the increasing global demands for skilled work 6.5 1.0
 Incorporate effective soft skills training components
  Effective soft skills training is essential 6.5 1.0
  Greatly enhances other training received 7.0 1.0
  Helps to address unknown future situations 7.0 1.0
  Includes problem solving 7.0 1.0
  Includes networking 7.0 1.0
  Includes work ethic 7.0 1.0
  Includes both independent and team work skills 7.0 1.0
  Is customizable to the community/population of interest 6.0 1.0
  Includes attitude 7.0 1.0
 Incorporate effective transferable skills training components
  Must define the relevant transferable skills 6.5 1.0
  Effective transferable skills training is essential 7.0 1.0
  Must be able to be customizable to the community/population of interest 6.0 1.0
  Creates a continued effect as the participant moves from job to job or encounters new experiences 7.0 1.0
  Helps to deal with issues related to temporary work 6.5 1.0
 Respond to the realities of its participants and the community
  Such as access to technology 7.0 1.0
  Such as literacy levels 6.0 1.0
  Such as socio-economic conditions and refugee status 6.0 1.0
  Such as language and translation issues 6.0 1.0
 Be feasible and accessible to its participants
  Should consider a user-friendly approach 6.0 1.0
  Should consider timing 6.0 1.0
  Should consider location 6.0 1.0
  Should consider accessibility 6.5 1.0
  Should consider delivery mechanism (e.g., electronic, paper, lecture, experiential) 6.0 1.0
  Should consider repeating programs (i.e. same program offered again) 6.0 1.0
  Should consider short programs 6.0 1.0
  Should consider online programs 6.0 1.0
  Single locations (such as career centers) as standalone locations for career and WFD programs should work in conjunction with the academic standards/practices already within the community 6.5 1.0
 Include different approaches within the curriculum
  Should consider project based/experiential approaches 6.0 1.0
  Should consider educational information 6.0 1.0
  Should consider focusing on developing positive models 6.0 1.0
  Should consider innovation 6.0 1.0
  Should consider combining different methods and interventions 7.0 1.0
  Should consider adaptability 6.0 1.0
  Should consider participant-guided approaches 6.0 1.0
  Should consider different methods of communications and learning styles 7.0 1.0
  Effective delivery of career and WFD programs should consider accountability tools 6.5 1.0
 Incorporate participant and stakeholder issues
  Should consider privacy and confidentiality issues 6.5 1.0
  Should consider information for family members 6.0 1.0
  Should consider time for discussion with program leaders/trainers 6.0 1.0
 Include individual interventions
  Allow for specific, personalized attention and support 6.5 1.0
  Should not be the only form of intervention 7.0 1.0
 Include group interventions
  Group interventions are essential 6.0 1.0
  Allow participants to learn from each other 6.0 1.0
  Improve participant ability to work in groups 7.0 1.0
  Improve participant’s interpersonal skills 6.0 1.0
  Can take the form of small group guidance 6.5 1.0
  Can take the form of whole classroom activities 6.0 1.0
  Promote soft skills such as collaboration and problem solving 6.0 1.0
 Include peer to peer interactions
  Peer to peer interactions are essential 6.0 1.0
  Facilitates social skills development 6.0 1.0
 Incorporate technology
  Technology is essential 6.0 1.0
  Provides flexibility 6.0 0.5
  Can be used to present information in diverse ways 6.5 1.0
  Allows participant to access information at different times and locations 7.0 1.0
  Should include teaching participants how to use technology to their benefit (e.g., finding valid/reliable information, how to search for services, etc.) 7.0 1.0
  Must be tied into other interventions to be effective and appropriate 6.0 1.0
 Utilize basic fundamentals as related to its development and implementation
  Should be driven by common goals and outcomes 6.0 1.0
  Should be contextual 6.0 0.5
  Should use simple evaluation tools 6.0 1.0
  Should be measurable 6.5 1.0
  Should be performance based 6.0 1.0
  Should utilize technology to store participant data on assessments, progress, etc. 6.0 1.0
  Should combine progress measures (quality assurance) with program outcomes 6.0 1.0
  Should include different forms of data 6.0 1.0
 Utilize clear operational definitions of items to be measured
  Should be driven by a common definition and understanding of “impact” 6.0 1.0
  Should match clear and systemic inputs with measurable outcomes 6.5 1.0
  Should use explicit indicators 6.0 1.0
 Include observations from multiple aspects of the program
  Should look at what has been learned 6.0 1.0
  Should look at any behavioral differences within participants 6.0 1.0
  Should look at how the target audience was engaged throughout the program 6.0 1.0
  Should look at what has been invested within the program 7.0 1.0
 Include intervention research; with the aim of analyzing and evaluating the program itself
  Intervention research is essential 6.5 1.0
  Should include exploring the optimum timing, duration and mode of delivery of career guidance interventions 6.0 0.5
  Should look at why something works, as well as if it works 6.0 1.0
  Should include the use of administrative datasets and (online) big data in the evaluation of interventions 6.0 1.0
  Should include regular use of statistical meta-analyses as a way of synthesizing the literature 6.0 1.0
  Should include longitudinal work 6.5 1.0
 Include intervention research; with the aim of informing future projects and contributing to broader systemic change
  Should include how evidence interfaces with practice and practitioner 6.0 1.0
  Adds support to continued funding 6.0 1.0
  Should be targeted to policy makers 6.0 1.0
  Should assist policy makers in evaluating current policies, as well as developing new policies 7.0 1.0
 Include key outputs and outcomes related to participant variables
  Should include job satisfaction 6.0 1.0
  Should include personal confidence 6.0 1.0
  Should include increased motivation and empowerment 6.0 1.0
  Should include job retention 6.0 1.0
  Should include supervisor assessment of performance 6.0 1.0
 Include key outputs and outcomes related to program and community related variables
  Should include development of resources 6.0 0.5
  Should include activities undertaken 6.0 1.0
  Should include the extent to which the program addressed the needs of the community/participants 6.0 1.0
  Should include the extent to which the program is sustainable 7.0 1.0
  Should include the context of where the program was delivered 6.0 1.0
  Should include the type of modality that was used 6.0 1.0
  Should include determining what the local socio-economic context necessitates 6.0 1.0
  Should include participation in target groups 6.5 1.0
 Utilize methodological rigor when identifying and measuring key outputs and outcomes
  Should include defining terms before collecting data 7.0 1.0
  Should include the use of common terms throughout 6.5 1.0
  Should include using a highly representative sample 7.0 1.0
  Should include both qualitative and quantitative data 7.0 0.0
  Should include both indirect and direct measures 7.0 1.0
  Should include vetted findings and analysis 6.0 1.0