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Table 2 Binomial logistic regression models including average marginal effects of VET school-leavers’ labor market outcomes (N = 6014).

From: The role of different types of skills and signals in youth labor market integration

  Immediate entry Horizontal match Vertical match Job security
AME1 (SE) B (SE) AME (SE) B (SE) AME (SE) B (SE) AME (SE) B (SE)
Self-rated skills
 Specific skills 0.033*** (0.008) 0.251*** (0.060) 0.103*** (0.009) 0.581*** (0.054) 0.056*** (0.009) 0.316*** (0.053) 0.041*** (0.010) 0.210*** (0.053)
 Generic skills 0.002 (0.008) 0.016 (0.059) − 0.040*** (0.009) − 0.226*** (0.052) − 0.013 (0.009) − 0.072 (0.052) − 0.008 (0.010) − 0.042 (0.050)
Educational signals
 Apprenticeship at firm (no = ref.)
  Yes 0.207*** (0.010) 1.558*** (0.083) 0.177*** (0.011) 1.000*** (0.064) 0.085*** (0.011) 0.477*** (0.064) 0.213*** (0.011) 1.087*** (0.060)
  Missing 0.177~ (0.098) 1.331~ (0.742) 0.119 (0.092) 0.673 (0.517) 0.158 (0.111) 0.889 (0.625) 0.319*** (0.085) 1.626*** (0.432)
 VET track (school − based = ref.)
  Work-based track 0.105*** (0.014) 0.788*** (0.108) 0.116*** (0.015) 0.656*** (0.088) 0.004 (0.015) 0.022 (0.082) 0.221*** (0.014) 1.127*** (0.075)
 VET level (2 = ref.)
  Level 3 0.071*** (0.016) 0.535*** (0.118) 0.102*** (0.018) 0.575*** (0.101) − 0.025 (0.017) − 0.143 (0.097) 0.070*** (0.019) 0.355*** (0.099)
  Level 4 0.079*** (0.015) 0.593*** (0.112) 0.124*** (0.017) 0.701*** (0.097) 0.077*** (0.017) 0.437*** (0.097) 0.076*** (0.019) 0.385*** (0.098)
 Average grad. grade 0.003 (0.009) 0.025 (0.067) 0.031** (0.010) 0.173** (0.059) 0.028** (0.010) 0.156** (0.059) 0.021~ (0.011) 0.106~ (0.056)
Controls
 Educational sector
  Economics = ref.
   Agriculture − 0.037~ (0.020) − 0.282~ (0.154) 0.030 (0.023) 0.170 (0.129) 0.005 (0.023) 0.030 (0.129) − 0.039 (0.026) − 0.198 (0.133)
   Technology − 0.033* (0.014) − 0.252* (0.103) 0.098*** (0.015) 0.556*** (0.088) 0.036* (0.015) 0.206* (0.087) 0.029~ (0.017) 0.150~ (0.085)
   Health care 0.035** (0.014) 0.268** (0.103) 0.177*** (0.015) 1.001*** (0.088) 0.151*** (0.016) 0.853*** (0.090) 0.018 (0.016) 0.092 (0.081)
   Social work − 0.044** (0.015) − 0.332** (0.114) 0.073*** (0.018) 0.410*** (0.100) 0.041* (0.018) 0.232* (0.102) − 0.130*** (0.022) − 0.663*** (0.111)
 Female − 0.028* (0.012) − 0.209* (0.088) 0.006 (0.013) 0.035 (0.075) 0.007 (0.013) 0.037 (0.076) − 0.031* (0.014) − 0.160* (0.074)
 Age − 0.014*** (0.003) − 0.107*** (0.020) 0.004 (0.003) 0.024 (0.018) 0.010** (0.003) 0.058** (0.018) 0.003 (0.003) 0.017 (0.017)
 Ethnic background
  Native Dutch = ref.
   Western 0.034 (0.024) 0.260 (0.178) − 0.042~ (0.025) − 0.238~ (0.144) − 0.071** (0.025) − 0.398** (0.141) − 0.002 (0.028) − 0.010 (0.145)
   Non-western − 0.097*** (0.017) − 0.733*** (0.132) − 0.069** (0.022) − 0.389** (0.123) − 0.043~ (0.022) − 0.242~ (0.124) − 0.053* (0.026) − 0.272* (0.130)
   Missing − 0.022 (0.059) − 0.163 (0.441) 0.132~ (0.080) 0.747~ (0.450) 0.153~ (0.088) 0.865~ (0.497) − 0.051 (0.073) − 0.258 (0.374)
 Parental educational background
  Elementary = ref.
   Lower secondary − 0.024 (0.038) − 0.185 (0.286) − 0.047 (0.043) − 0.266 (0.241) 0.009 (0.041) 0.054 (0.231) − 0.013 (0.046) − 0.068 (0.233)
   Upper sec. gen. − 0.070~ (0.040) − 0.527~ (0.305) − 0.050 (0.046) − 0.282 (0.260) − 0.040 (0.044) − 0.227 (0.248) − 0.016 (0.050) − 0.080 (0.253)
   Upper sec. VET − 0.054 (0.037) − 0.409 (0.280) − 0.025 (0.042) − 0.140 (0.238) 0.038 (0.040) 0.214 (0.227) − 0.042 (0.045) − 0.216 (0.229)
   Tertiary − 0.075* (0.037) − 0.568* (0.282) − 0.025 (0.042) − 0.143 (0.240) 0.044 (0.041) 0.245 (0.230) − 0.028 (0.045) − 0.142 (0.231)
   Missing − 0.044 (0.040) − 0.330 (0.303) − 0.062 (0.046) − 0.351 (0.257) − 0.001 (0.044) − 0.004 (0.247) 0.010 (0.049) 0.053 (0.250)
 Constant    2.083** (0.689)    − 3.649*** (0.601)    − 3.126*** (0.594)    − 3.272*** (0.565)
 Log likelihood    − 2517     − 3189     − 3212     − 3471  
  1. AME average marginal effect
  2. Significance levels: *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, ~ p < 0.10