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Table 2 Main effects from the multilevel predictive models

From: Associations between vocational students’ perceptions of goal structures, mastery goals, and self-efficacy in five subjects—practical relevance as a potential mediator

Model Est. (S. D.) Std. (S. D.)
Accounting
Classroom-level (L2) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals 0.19 (0.16) 0.32 (0.23)
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy 0.02 (0.14) 0.07 (0.40)
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.63 (0.13) ** 0.56 (0.08) **
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.10 (0.14) 0.17 (0.25)
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy 0.04 (0.12) 0.14 (0.41)
Individual-level (L1) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals 0.21 (0.07)** 0.18 (0.06) **
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy 0.16 (0.07)* 0.14 (0.06) *
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.64 (0.06) ** 0.49 (0.04) **
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.30 (0.05)** 0.32 (0.05) **
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy 0.06 (0.06) 0.07 (0.07)
Business administration
Classroom-level (L2) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals −0.04 (0.14) −0.09 (0.27)
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy −0.11 (0.19) −0.22 (0.34)
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.77 (0.11) ** 0.74 (0.06)**
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.39 (0.13)** 0.87 (0.26)**
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy 0.17 (0.19) 0.36 (0.36)
Individual-level (L1) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals 0.35 (0.07) ** 0.31 (0.06) **
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy 0.06 (0.08) 0.05 (0.07)
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.63 (0.06) ** 0.52 (0.04) **
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.14 (0.06) ** 0.15 (0.06) **
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy 0.03 (0.07) 0.03 (0.07)
English
Classroom-level (L2) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals 0.36 (0.19)* 0.50 (0.23)*
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy −0.00 (0.23) −0.00 (0.36)
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.79 (0.18)** 0.58 (0.10)**
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.10 (0.15) 0.17 (0.26)
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy 0.08 (0.17) 0.17 (0.38)
Individual-level (L1) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals 0.34 (0.07)** 0.33 (0.07)**
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy 0.15 (0.10) 0.12 (0.07)
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.61 (0.06)** 0.52 (0.04)**
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.03 (0.06) 0.03 (0.07)
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy 0.06 (0.08) 0.05 (0.07)
German
Classroom-level (L2) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals 0.32 (0.24) 0.30 (0.22)
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy 0.04 (0.19) 0.07 (0.07)
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.80 (0.14)** 0.64 (0.08)**
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.26 (0.21) 0.32 (0.24)
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy −0.07 (0.16) −0.15 (0.36)
Individual-level (L1) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals 0.24 (0.08)** 0.20 (0.07)**
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy 0.08 (0.08) 0.07 (0.07)
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.77 (0.07)** 0.58 (0.04)**
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.21 (0.06)** 0.23 (0.07)**
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy 0.08 (0.07) 0.10 (0.08)
Mathematics
Classroom-level (L2) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals 0.23 (0.17) 0.32 (0.23)
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy 0.35 (0.17)** 0.72 (0.28)**
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.83 (0.16)** 0.67 (0.09)**
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.32 (0.13)* 0.57 (0.21)*
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy −0.29 (0.14)* −0.76 (0.27)*
Individual-level (L1) effects
Mastery goal structure → Mastery goals 0.26 (0.08)** 0.22 (0.07)**
Mastery goal structure → Self-efficacy 0.12 (0.08) 0.10 (0.07)
Mastery goal structure → Practical relevance 0.72 (0.07)** 0.56 (0.04)**
Practical relevance → Mastery goals 0.26 (0.06)** 0.29 (0.06)**
Practical relevance → Self-efficacy 0.02 (0.07) 0.03 (0.08)
  1. Est. = unstandardized parameter estimate; S. D. = Bayesian Posterior Standard Deviation; Std. = standardized parameter estimate
  2. *p ≤ .05; **p ≤ .01