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Table 2 Estimating the probability of successful and unsuccessful applications: multinomial logistic regressions; average marginal effects for bivariate and full models.

From: Why companies prefer applicants from non-immigrant families: investigating access to vocational training among low-qualified adolescents with an interlinked firm-applicant survey

 Bivariate models with gross AME with only one predictor variable eachFull model 1 with net AMEFull model 2 with net AME
Firm’s selection criterion:
“Ability of verbal expression”
* Applicant’s ethnic background
Firm’s selection criterion:
“Apprentice has to fit into the team”
* Applicant’s ethnic background
123123123
Successful at interviewed companySuccessful at other companyUnsuccessful school-to-VET transitionSuccessful at interviewed companySuccessful at other companyUnsuccessful school-to-VET transitionSuccessful at interviewed companySuccessful at other companyUnsuccessful school-to-VET transition
Selection criteria: “ability of verbal expression”
* Applicant’s ethnic background (ref. applicants of native parentage. independent of firm’s opinion on criterion)
 Firm: criterion less important
* At least one parent foreign-born/missing
− 0.12*− 0.010.13**− 0.12**− 0.070.18***   
 Firm: criterion very important
* At least one parent foreign-born/missing
− 0.060.11− 0.05− 0.050.08− 0.03   
 Selection criteria: “The apprentice has to fit into the team.”
* Applicant’s ethnic background (ref. applicants of native parentage. independent of firm’s opinion on criterion)
Firm: criterion less important
* At least one parent foreign-born/missing
− 0.02− 0.12+0.14*   − 0.03− 0.15*0.18**
Firm: criterion very important
* At least one parent foreign-born/missing
− 0.13**0.080.05   − 0.12**0.050.08
Preparatory vocational training (ref. none)
At least one program− 0.06+− 0.30***0.33***− 0.06+− 0.30***0.36***− 0.06*− 0.30***0.36***
Recruiting with online job-database (ref. no)
Yes− 0.13**0.080.05− 0.12**0.09*0.03− 0.12**0.09*0.03
Selection criterion: social recommendation very important (ref. less important)0.29***1.94***− 0.28***0.26**0.02− 0.28***0.26**0.02− 0.28***
Parental employment status
*School-leaving diploma (ref. all graduates with medium-level school diploma)
At least one parent full-time employed
* Max. low-level school diploma
0.04− 0.040.000.04− 0.060.020.04− 0.060.02
No parent full-time employed
* Max. low-level school diploma
− 0.05− 0.16*0.20***− 0.03− 0.10+0.14**− 0.02− 0.11+0.14**
Missing0.06− 0.11+0.050.04− 0.10+0.040.06− 0.10+0.04
Pseudo-R2   0.140.14
  1. N = 596 company-applicant dyads; robust standard errors consider nested data structure; levels of statistical significance: +p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001