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Table 4 Descriptive statistics (2010–2016; 2011–2016 for percentages of employees per sector)

From: Brain drain from vocational to academic education at upper-secondary level? An empirical analysis for Switzerland

Variable Mean Std. Dev Min Max Observations
Average requirements profile
 Overall 37.77958 0.718916 36.15791 40.22382 N = 182
 Between   0.6202714 36.67223 39.52893 n = 26
 Within   0.3806011 36.5047 38.98127 T = 7
Academic requirements in language
 Overall 39.48141 1.862188 32.24052 43.65704 N = 182
 Between   1.782228 34.21083 42.61437 n = 26
 Within   0.6298416 36.77589 42.31539 T = 7
Academic requirements in mathematics
 Overall 35.28047 1.893371 29.36918 43.88929 N = 182
 Between   1.713335 31.31002 39.31008 n = 26
 Within   0.864086 32.29405 39.85969 T = 7
Academic requirements in science
 Overall 39.74382 1.683871 32.31897 43.70227 N = 182
 Between   1.573057 34.87237 42.25246 n = 26
 Within   0.6655398 37.19043 42.34876 T = 7
Academic requirements in foreign languages
 Overall 13.34942 1.158093 10.44164 16.71619 N = 182
 Between   1.103755 10.97519 16.06949 n = 26
 Within   0.4040901 12.06212 14.6211 T = 7
Overall success rate in VET
 Overall 0.917229 0.0384134 0.7585523 0.973747 N = 182
 Between   0.0369964 0.8280754 0.9650592 n = 26
 Within   0.012338 0.847706 0.9600205 T = 7
Success rate in dual VET
 Overall 0.9153385 0.0410322 0.7445512 0.973747 N = 182
 Between   0.039602 0.8200028 0.9650592 n = 26
 Within   0.0129351 0.8398869 0.9578846 T = 7
Academic education rate
 Overall 0.1946923 0.047578 0.1082677 0.3209726 N = 182
 Between   0.0465394 0.1309299 0.2963495 n = 26
 Within   0.013021 0.1438511 0.2423116 T = 7
Alternative academic education rate
 Overall 0.215695 0.0565057 0.122807 0.377293 N = 182
 Between   0.0546714 0.1389165 0.3396243 n = 26
 Within   0.0174072 0.1481207 0.2661766 T = 7
Percentage of immigrants
 Overall 0.2136943 0.0707061 0.0974253 0.4094976 N = 182
 Between   0.071356 0.1045613 0.4005796 n = 26
 Within   0.0087436 0.1908044 0.2321561 T = 7
Percentage of school-based VET (entries)
 Overall 0.0732393 0.1124353 0 0.4702395 N = 182
 Between   0.1111558 0 0.3948114 n = 26
 Within   0.0263756 − 0.0247664 0.2153434 T = 7
Percentage of school-based VET (stock)
 Overall 0.0824078 0.1196379 0 0.4606203 N = 182
 Between   0.1181228 0 0.416153 n = 26
 Within   0.0286839 − 0.0279075 0.1619444 T = 7
Percentage of graduates from compulsory education
 Overall 0.0109984 0.0011317 0.0076531 0.0146609 N = 182
 Between   0.0010228 0.0080837 0.0132621 n = 26
 Within   0.0005188 0.0091716 0.0129377 T = 7
Percentage of imputed values (dependent variable)
 Overall 0.1655358 0.029066 0.0887115 0.3107899 N = 182
 Between   0.027446 0.1233392 0.257132 n = 26
 Within   0.0107944 0.1309081 0.2191936 T = 7
Percentage of employees in agriculture
 Overall 0.0479598 0.028943 0.0003199 0.138199 N = 156
 Between   0.0293191 0.0005028 0.129715 n = 26
 Within   0.0024121 0.0406212 0.0564437 T = 6
Percentage of employees in production
 Overall 0.1660654 0.0572611 0.0700826 0.3032209 N = 156
 Between   0.0573165 0.0741173 0.2964161 n = 26
 Within   0.0099813 0.1277266 0.2037565 T = 6
Percentage of employees in other services
 Overall 0.3201441 0.052581 0.216515 0.430584 N = 156
 Between   0.0531009 0.2189658 0.4255397 n = 26
 Within   0.0060006 0.2907029 0.3345292 T = 6
Percentage of employees in construction
 Overall 0.0799431 0.0207528 0.0415706 0.1315162 N = 156
 Between   0.0209583 0.0426848 0.1208313 n = 26
 Within   0.0023659 0.0687933 0.0906279 T = 6
Percentage of employees in retail
 Overall 0.1241686 0.0215848 0.079553 0.1975734 N = 156
 Between   0.0216579 0.0843819 0.1912512 n = 26
 Within   0.0034595 0.1141999 0.1360938 T = 6
Percentage of employees in financial services and insurance
 Overall 0.0386532 0.0193645 0.0207549 0.0985102 N = 156
 Between   0.0196428 0.0214944 0.0940751 n = 26
 Within   0.0012616 0.03502 0.0430883 T = 6
Percentage of employees in public administration and education
 Overall 0.0972419 0.0154127 0.0667508 0.1341347 N = 156
 Between   0.0154025 0.071969 0.1313856 n = 26
 Within   0.0028225 0.0857241 0.1070654 T = 6
Percentage of employees in Health
 Overall 0.1258239 0.0256674 0.0688394 0.2116868 N = 156
 Between   0.0256936 0.0733402 0.2050814 n = 26
 Within   0.0044667 0.1126382 0.1368301 T = 6