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Table 1 Descriptive statistics before matching

From: Does tertiary vocational education beat academic education? A matching analysis of young men’s earnings developments

Variables Foremen
N = 2213
Academics
N = 17,062
t test Definition
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
“Decision phase”
 Age at the start of apprenticeship 18.64 (3.38) 19.38 (2.66) 11.90 In years
 Age at the end of apprenticeship 21.22 (3.19) 21.97 (2.40) 9.34 In years
 Schooling background 0.04 (0.19) 0.32 (0.47) 27.59 Dummy variable for A-level at the end of apprenticeship training
 Daily wage at the end of apprenticeship 3.18 (0.48) 3.26 (0.47) 7.13 Daily log wage at the end of apprenticeship
 Number of apprentices 103.42 (340.40) 115.51 (368.15) 1.47 Number of apprentices within the training establishment at the end of apprenticeship training (foremen median = 3 academics median = 4)
 Retention rate     3 categories: how many apprentices stay in the training establishment after they finish apprenticeship training
  Less than 40%
  40–60%
  More than 60%
0.40
0.03
0.57
0.46
0.05
0.49
 
 Average income level in training establishment 4.26
(0.32)
4.41
(0.32)
20.56 Average daily log wage for all full-time employees in the training establishment
 Sector of training establishment     24 categories based on the 3 digit classification of economic activities of the training establishment
 Size of training establishment     3 categories of employee numbers
  Less than 250 employees
  250–1000 employees
  More than 1000 employees
0.66
0.18
0.16
0.49
0.26
0.25
 
 Location of training establishment 0.75 0.85   Dummy variable for Western/Eastern Germany built from dummy variables for federal states
 Length of apprenticeship 2.14 (0.77) 1.97 (0.73) 12.09 Time in years between apprenticeship start and apprenticeship end
 Occupation of apprenticeship     2 digit level occupations (99 occupation dummies)
“Education phase”
 Full-time work experience 0.71 0.29   Share of time between apprenticeship and start as foreman or academic
 Part-time work experience 0.07 0.18   Share of time between apprenticeship and start as foreman or academic
 Unemployment period 0.09 0.04   Share of time between apprenticeship and start as foreman or academic
 Time outside of labour market 0.13 0.49   Share of time between apprenticeship and start as foreman or academic
 Time between apprenticeship and start as foremen/academic 2367.84 (1355.71) 2633.58 (943.17) 1.77 Time in days between apprenticeship and first employment as academic or foreman
“Return phase”
 Occupation     2 and 3 digit level occupations
 Age at first employment as academic or foremen 27.91 (4.49) 29.12 (3.21) 15.78 In years
 Location of entry establishment 0.79 0.87   Dummy variable for western/eastern Germany built from dummy variables for federal states
 Tenure 2.60 (3.81) 0.78 (1.42) 43.45 In years if Academic/foreman has been working in the entry establishment before the start as academic/foreman
 Average income level of entry establishment 4.31 (0.36) 4.63 (0.37) 38.21 Log average daily wage for all full-time employees in the entry establishment
 Same establishment as during apprenticeship 0.17 0.03   Dummy variable: 1 if the first employment as academic/foreman is in the same establishment as the apprenticeship, 0 otherwise
 Same establishment as first employment after apprenticeship 0.20 0.05   Dummy variable: 1 if the first employment as academic/foreman is in the same establishment as the first employment after the apprenticeship, 0 otherwise
 Size of entry establishment     3 categories of employee numbers
  Less than 250 employees
  250–1000 employees
  More than 1000 employees
0.75
0.13
0.12
0.47
0.25
0.28
 
 Entry wage 4.35 (0.47) 4.31 (0.72) 1.03 Log daily wage at employment start as foreman/academic
 Economic sector     24 categories based on the 3 digit classification of economic activities of the training establishment
  1. Source: LIAB longitudinal model 93-10