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Table 2 Influences on the attainment of school leaving certificates—results of multinomial logistic regression (average marginal effects—AME)

From: Transitions into vocational education and training by lower and intermediate secondary school leavers. Can male adolescents compensate for their school-based educational disadvantage in comparison with female adolescents?

Influencing factors Maximum lower secondary school leaving certificate Intermediate school leaving certificate Qualification for higher education
Model A
Gender, social background and migration status
Gender (ref.: male)
 Female −.079*** −.041* .120***
School-based and vocational education and training of parents (Ref.: Maximum intermediate school leaving certificate, without vocational qualification)
 Maximum lower secondary school leaving certificate, with vocational qualification −.085* .078* .007
 Intermediate school leaving certificate, with vocational qualification −.210*** .116*** .094**
 University (of Applied Sciences) entry qualification with or without vocational qualification −.253*** .053 .201***
 University (of Applied Sciences) entry qualification −.319*** −.048 .367***
 Missing information .034 −.037 .003
Social status of the father (EGP classification) (Ref.: Higher-grade professionals, managers in large companies (I))
 Lower-grade professionals, managers in small companies (II) −.028 .035 −.008
 Routine non-manual employees (III a/b) .020 .028 −.048
 Self employed (IV a/b/c) .048 .063+ −.112**
 Technicians, skilled workers (V,VI) .087** .043 −.130***
 Unskilled and semi skilled workers (VII a/b) .137*** .042 −.179***
 Never employed, missing information .092*** −.013 −.079*
Migration background (Ref.: without migration background)
 With migration background .048** .025 −.073***
Framework conditions in the local region (Federal State)
Percentage with qualification for higher education in % in the year school career is completed −.004*** −.005*** .009***
Percentage of school leavers with intermediate certificate  % in the year school career is completed .001 .005*** −.006***
Percentage of school leavers with lower secondary school leaving certificate  % in the year school career is completed .009*** .002* −.011***
Nagelkerkes R squared .298
Sample size 4213
  1. Significance level + p < .1, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001 (two-sided test)
  2. Basis Young adults born between 1987 to 1993 whose school career ended no later than the end of 2010 (unweighted results)