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Table 3 Growth curve models in which empowering ILT is predicted by time in Danish VET

From: Supervisors and teachers’ influence on expectations on empowering leadership among students in vocational education and training

  Empty model Model 1 Model 2
  Par. S.E. Par. S.E. Par. S.E.
Fixed effects
 Intercept 4.848** 0.021 4.790** 0.030 4.787** 0.031
 Time    0.055** 0.020 0.057** 0.020
Random effects
 Residuals 0.462 0.047 0.457 0.047 0.434 0.047
 Intercept 0.159 0.046 0.160 0.047 0.252 0.047
 Time      0.015 0.025
 Intercept * Time      −0.047 0.034
Model specifics
 Estimation method ML ML/REML REML
 Log likelihood 3346.3 3339.1/3350.9 3344.1
AIC 3352.3 3347.1/3354.9 3352.1
Diff log likelihood (diff df)   7.2**(1) 6.8*(2)
  1. n = 1264. Wald tests for fixed effects and χ2-tests of diff log likelihood for random effects
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. ** p < 0.01