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Table 2 Descriptive statistics—details (subsamples).

From: Another piece of the puzzle: Firms’ investment in training as production of optimal skills inventory

  Total overage costs Total underage costs Number of observations
Training 2.177 13.473 2658
Non-training 2.351 7.527 594
Firm’s size (up to 9 employees) 2.360 9.522 970
Firm’s size (10–49 employees) 2.027 8.057 1267
Firm’s size (50–499 employees) 2.625 7.057 822
Firm’s size (more than 500 employees) 2.836 11.554 193
Firm’s age (up to 10 years old) 2.390 8.610 706
Firm’s age (11–20 years old) 2.548 7.056 799
Firm’s age (21–50 years old) 2.226 6.591 940
Firm’s age (more than 51 years old) 1.774 18.686 807
Collective agreements 2.394 7.855 1592
No collective agreements 2.256 9.791 1660
Worker representation 2.854 5.331 1152
No worker representation 2.195 9.865 2100
Training occupation in agriculture, forestry, farming, and gardening 0.664 25.529 78
Training occupation in production of raw materials and goods, and manufacturing 2.401 8.353 828
Training occupation in construction, architecture, surveying and technical building services 3.182 10.327 254
Training occupation in natural sciences, geography and informatics 3.730 3.735 104
Training occupation in traffic, logistics, safety and security 2.281 2.434 195
Training occupation in commercial services, trading, sales, the hotel business and tourism 1.752 2.885 679
Training occupation in business organization, accounting, law and administration 2.319 21.212 756
Training occupation in health care, the social sector, teaching and education 2.047 3.978 305
Training occupation in philology, literature, humanities, social sciences, economics, media, art, culture, and design 4.363 5.579 53
Region: West 2.233 10.510 2617
Region: East 2.605 3.286 635
  1. Table reports all costs at mean in 10,000 Euros per person with (i) Total Overage Costs = Net Training Costs * (1 + Retention Risk), and (ii) Total Underage Costs = (Hiring Costs + Outage Costs)* (1 + Miscast Risk)