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Table 4 Subdivided determinants of the training intensity.

From: Another piece of the puzzle: Firms’ investment in training as production of optimal skills inventory

  Euro determinant All determinants
(1) (2) %change
Overage costs
 Net training costs − 0.0507*** (0.019) − 0.0501*** (0.019) − 4.88%
 Retention risk   − 2.5653*** (0.793) − 92.31%
Underage costs
 Hiring costs 0.0098 (0.055) − 0.0238 (0.053) − 2.35%
 Outage costs 0.0014* (0.001) 0.0019** (0.001) 0.19%
 Miscast costs   0.7870 (0.514) 119.68%
Demand structure
 Industry volatility 0.0220** (0.010) 0.0261** (0.010) 2.64%
 Constant − 4.0623*** (0.490) − 2.7810*** (0.665)  
 Controls Included Included Included
Number of observations 3252 3252 3252
Pseudo R2 0.040 0.044 0.044
  1. Table reports marginal effects of a negative binomial regression; all costs are in 10,000 Euros per person; %-change calculated as (incidence-rate ratio− 1) × 100; dependent variable: Number of apprentices; controls: Firm’s size(in #employees), Firm’s age (in years), Collective agreements (binary), Worker representation (binary), Training occupation, and Federal state; standard errors in parentheses; * statistically significant at the 0.10 level; ** at the 0.05 level; *** at the 0.01 level