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Table 1 Coding scheme for learner’s learning journal entries (final version after intercoder agreement)

From: What makes an online learning journal powerful for VET? Distinguishing productive usage patterns and effective learning strategies

Strategy Definition Examples
Metacognitive learning strategies (Schraw and Dennison 1994)
 Planning Setting goals and allocating resources “To decorate the surface nicely by putting the glaze”
 Monitoring Indicating specific steps to use as criterion for assessing the quality of a realization or one’s progress in realizing a given procedure “Not to have clots in the mass with the gelatin”
 Debugging Mentioning how errors can be tracked and corrected “The dough got holes so I need to work faster when depositing it”
 Evaluating Post-hoc analysis of the overall performance “I master this recipe quite well”
Cognitive learning strategies (Weinstein and Mayer 1986)
 Repetition Acknowledging that more practice is needed and will help improve the procedure “I need to do this recipe again”
 Elaboration Mentioning of a reference to another recipe “I need to do it like I learned for the carrot cake”
 Organization Indicating of a sequence of Operations to be performed in a given order “The dough needs to be cold before it can be employed further”
Resource management learning strategies (McKeachie 1987)
 Help seeking Acknowledging that support from others is needed with an indication of its source “I need to ask my supervisor how to …”
 Time management Scheduling a task and goal setting “I need to work faster on this step”
 Organize work environment Indicating changes to be made in the organization of the workspace “I need to have ingredients nearby while realizing this recipe”
 Self-management Indicating regulations to be made in one’s effort, attitude or style “I need to learn to be less easily distracted”