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Table 7 Summary of survey responses, showing average agreement (from 1: strongly agree, to 5: strongly disagree) across seven dimensions by student group

From: Tertiary students’ perceptions of hospitality careers in Vietnam

# Statements Groups n Mean SD \(\varvec{\chi}_{4}^{2}\) p V
Nature of work
1 I find jobs in the hospitality industry interesting VET 104 1.80 .72 11.20 .011  
   HE 148 1.99 .61 27.81   
2 Family life is negatively affected for people working in the hospitality industry due to the nature of work VET 104 3.39 1.24 27.81 .000* .34
  HE 148 2.81 1.01    
Social status
1 My family is proud of my profession in hospitality VET 104 2.13 .81 21.69 .000* .29
   HE 147 2.63 .88    
2 Working in hospitality is regarded as an important and beneficial service to the society in Vietnam VET 104 1.98 .72 6.65 .155  
  HE 145 2.18 .77    
3 I talk to my relatives and friends with pride about my vocation in the hospitality industry VET 104 1.85 .72 7.53 .110  
  HE 145 2.07 .82    
Industry-person congeniality
1 I find serving foreign tourists degrading VET 103 4.57 .65 7.83 .098  
   HE 148 1.96 .72    
2 I am well suited to working in the hospitality industry VET 104 2.99 1.12 41.40 .000* .41
  HE 149 2.28 .71    
3 I find serving Vietnamese tourists degrading VET 104 4.41 .78 11.34 .023  
   HE 149 4.29 .72    
4 I can use my abilities and skills in hospitality jobs VET 97 1.84 .62 6.44 .169  
   HE 148 1.96 .72    
5 I get pleasure while working in the hospitality industry VET 103 2.11 .84 21.29 .000* .41
  HE 148 2.55 .83    
6 I believe that my moral values will degrade if I work in the hospitality industry VET 104 4.46 .71 3.84 .280  
  HE 149 4.29 .80    
7 I like to see satisfied customers when I serve them VET 103 1.56 .65 3.96 .266  
   HE 147 1.43 .58    
8 It is not nice to serve people while they are on holiday and enjoying themselves. VET 104 4.30 .89 19.13 .001  
  HE 146 4.02 .81    
9 It is a very nice feeling to serve those who are on holiday and enjoying themselves VET 104 2.93 1.18 38.51 .000* .39
  HE 149 2.32 .74    
Pay/promotions opportunities
1 I think that the pay for most hospitality jobs not sufficient to lead a satisfactory life VET 102 3.37 1.03 42.73 .000* .41
  HE 147 2.57 .95    
2 Considering the long hours and work load I find the pay low in the hospitality industry VET 104 3.18 1.09 49.62 .000* .45
  HE 148 2.27 .82    
3 Promotion is based on merit VET 100 1.94 .60 21.64 .000* .29
   HE 149 2.30 .91    
4 Promotion opportunities are satisfactory VET 100 2.15 .77 34.09 .000* .37
   HE 149 2.79 .83    
5 The opportunity of getting promoted to managerial positions is limited VET 100 3.16 1.08 41.29 .000* .41
  HE 148 2.39 .84    
6 Number of years worked in the industry is taken into consideration in promotion decisions VET 89 3.10 1.15 31.10 .000* .35
  HE 147 2.44 .89    
7 It is very difficult to get promoted if you do not ‘have an uncle in the court’ VET 97 3.45 1.16 44.24 .000* .43
  HE 149 2.62 .98    
8 Promotions are not consistent VET 97 3.53 1.00 47.10 .000* .44
   HE 149 2.60 .94    
Co-workers
1 There is no team spirit amongst co-workers in the hospitality industry VET 101 3.08 1.17 17.44 .002  
  HE 148 3.54 .90    
2 There is cooperation amongst employees in the hospitality industry VET 101 1.86 .57 13.60 .009  
  HE 147 2.16 .69    
3 Employees are generally uneducated in the hospitality industry VET 101 4.19 .72 14.11 .007  
  HE 148 3.81 1.01    
4 I can make friends easily with people working in the hospitality industry VET 100 2.82 1.15 43.92 .000* .42
  HE 149 2.03 .69    
5 It is not easy to get along with people working in the hospitality industry VET 101 1.14 .71 19.54 .000* .28
  HE 148 3.71 .77    
6 Most employees are highly motivated and enthusiastic about working in the hospitality industry VET 98 2.33 .81 27.29 .000* .33
  HE 146 2.87 .81    
7 Most people working in the hospitality industry are rude people VET 101 4.41 .57 14.63 .002  
  HE 148 4.07 .82    
8 I think there are good relationships amongst employees in the hospitality industry VET 98 2.20 .75 26.18 .000* .32
  HE 147 2.65 .79    
9 I find people working in the hospitality industry boring VET 99 4.10 .58 12.59 .013  
  HE 149 3.82 .83    
Managers
1 Managers value to employees VET 99 1.95 .63 23.05 .000* .31
   HE 149 2.47 .91    
2 Managers do not make an effort for the organisational commitment of employees VET 99 3.92 .60 30.50 .000* .35
  HE 147 3.37 .84    
3 Managers delegate authority in order for employees to do their jobs better VET 98 1.89 .61 22.35 .000* .30
  HE 149 2.34 .80    
4 Most managers do not have an educational background in hospitality VET 101 4.03 .68 46.45 .000* .43
  HE 147 2.63 .85    
5 Managers value employees’ suggestions VET 103 2.03 .75 33.60 .000* .37
   HE 147 2.63 .85    
6 Managers do not reward employees who are doing a good job VET 100 3.61 .88 17.90 .001  
  HE 146 3.16 .89    
7 Managers behave respectfully to employees VET 103 1.84 .60 31.89 .000* .36
   HE 147 2.40 .86    
8 Managers make sure that employees participate in decisions affecting their job VET 103 2.18 .82 9.62 .047  
  HE 149 2.50 .90    
9 There is no good relationship between managers and employees VET 103 3.73 .82 18.23 .001  
  HE 149 3.28 .84    
10 Managers do not help solve employees’ personal problems VET 100 3.58 1.01 37.74 .000* .39
  HE 147 3.05 .81    
11 Managers do provide vocational training when necessary VET 103 1.82 .70 23.70 .000* 31
  HE 147 3.05 .81    
12 Managers behave in a fair way to employees VET 104 1.98 .67 28.78 .000* .34
   HE 148 2.55 .88    
13 Managers do not put great effort into making employees satisfied from their jobs VET 102 3.86 .83 33.35 .000* .37
  HE 145 3.21 .93    
Commitment to the industry
1 The disadvantages of working in the hospitality industry outweigh the advantages VET 104 3.75 .79 30.31 .000* .35
  HE 149 3.07 .99    
2 I am very happy to have chosen hospitality as a vocation path VET 104 1.90 .66 29.05 .000* .34
  HE 149 2.44 .87    
3 I would not want my son or daughter to study hospitality and work in the hospitality industry VET 102 3.51 1.06 12.46 .014  
  HE 149 3.15 1.05    
4 I would like to work in the hospitality industry after graduation VET 104 3.63 1.29 24.55 .000* .41
  HE 148 3.51 .94    
5 I will definitely not work in the hospitality industry after graduation VET 104 3.63 1.29 24.55 .000* .31
  HE 148 3.51 .94    
6 I recommend first year students choose a different career path than hospitality VET 103 3.97 .89 8.73 .068  
  HE 146 3.87 .91    
7 It was a mistake to choose hospitality as a career path VET 103 4.15 .73 8.08 .89  
  HE 148 3.87 .91    
8 I recommend a job in the hospitality industry to my friends and relatives because it is very nice to be part of this industry VET 103 1.94 .76 40.97 .000* .41
  HE 145 2.53 .79    
9 I see my vocational (professional) future in the hospitality industry VET 103 2.47 .99 44.51 .000* .42
  HE 148 3.36 .94    
  1. * Due to Bonferroni correction of multiple testing, significance is tested against p < .001; Effect sizes (Cramer’s V) based on Cohen’s (1988) guidelines: between .20 and .40 “medium or typical”, between .40 and .60 “large or larger than typical